Anecdotes Right from PFI-2-Analysts Which All Have Acheived Success
, 2011). Capturing this organic matter as a renewable energy source will be an attractive process (Sutton et al., 2011). Wastewater treatment plants can be net energy producers by utilizing organic PFI-2 matter in municipal wastewater that is currently degraded with external energy input (McCarty et al., 2011). Anaerobic treatment processes are viable options for producing energy from organic matter in wastewater. Concentration of COD in municipal wastewater is in the range of 250�C800?mg/L (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003), whereas it is difficult to apply anaerobic processes to wastewater with COD concentrations of <1500�C2000?mg/L (Metcalf and Eddy, 2003). Concentrating raw wastewater can therefore facilitate application of anaerobic processes to produce biogas. Analysis of the particle size distribution of organic matter in raw municipal wastewater showed that 63�C70% of total organic carbon (TOC) was associated with particles that were larger than 0.1?��m (Levine et al., 1985). Loose membranes such as microfiltration (MF) membranes can efficiently retain particulate and colloidal organic matter in wastewater. Concentrating organic matter in wastewater can therefore be carried out by membrane processes, facilitating recovery of energy from wastewater via anaerobic digestion. Direct membrane filtration <a href="http://www.selleckchem.com/products/azd6738.html">AZD6738 (DMF) of wastewater has advantages including simplicity of design and maintenance (Ravazzini et al., 2005). However, in DMF of municipal wastewater, severe membrane fouling is very likely to occur. Although several attempts have been made to concentrate organic matter in wastewater Doxorubicin by using membranes (Ravazzini et al., 2005, Hernandez Leal et al., 2010?and?Mezohegyi et al., 2012), few studies have focused on membrane fouling in DMF. It is not clear whether long-term operation of a membrane process for recovery of organic matter from wastewater is feasible. Recent developments and modifications in manufacturing have made membranes much more robust, enabling chemically enhanced backwash (CEB) to be carried out in routine operations. In CEB, a chemical cleaning reagent is added to the backwash solution and cleaning efficiency is significantly improved. CEB is popularly used in controlling membrane fouling in both traditional membrane filtration processes or membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems (Zheng et al., 2011). Intensive CEB, in terms of both frequency and concentration of the chemical reagent, may enable long-term operation of DMF of municipal wastewater. There have been few attempts to examine CEB in DMF of municipal wastewater. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate the feasibility of DMF of municipal wastewater with CEB. A schematic representation of the laboratory-scale filtration setup used in this study is shown in Fig. 1. It consisted of two filtration tanks (designated T1 and T2 hereafter) with an effective volume of 0.75?L each.